Road (“road racing”) bikes are characterized by their light frames and narrow, high-pressure tires. They’re generally less comfortable than other types of bicycles, but their design makes for a faster and more responsive ride. Riding a lighter bike up a hill takes a lot less energy!
Pro: The fastest and lightest type of bike available.
Con: Riders used to wider tires and a more upright position may find this bike style uncomfortable and somewhat hard to handle. Time in the saddle usually eases these concerns.